Myanmar has a long coastline of nearly 3 000 km. It can be divided into three coastal regions: the Rakhine Coastal Region (from the mouth of the Naaf River to Mawtin Point, about 740 km in length), the Ayeyarwaddy Delta and the Gulf of Moattama (Martaban) Coastal Region (from the Mawtin Point to the Gulf of Moattama, about 460 km in length) and the Thanintharyi Coastal Region (from the Gulf of Moattama to the mouth of the Pakchan River, about 1 200 km in length) in the Bay of Bengal and in the Andaman Sea.
Myanmar has many brackish water rivers and fresh water rivers, several large estuaries, delta system and numerous off shore islands. Myanmar has considerable diversity of costal habitats, including enormous coral reefs mangroves, sandy beach and mudflat. In Myanmar, there has capture and culture based aquaculture production. The marine capture fishery comprises coastal or inshore fisheries, and offshore fisheries or deep- sea fisheries. Various type of fishing gears are used exploit in large diversity of marine species found in Myanmar water. Inland fisheries in Myanmar are mostly associated riverine and estuarine system. Inland water bodies, such as nature lakes, reservoirs, river system and ponds, cover about 8.1 million hectares, of which 1.3 millions are permanent and the others are seasonally inundated floodplains. Aquatic resource area of the river systems within Myanmar encompasses 8.2 million ha (FAO, 1996) of permanent and seasonal water bodies and there were 29 000 ha of freshwater fishponds and a further 40 716 ha of shrimp ponds in 2001, and 115687 ha of reservoirs. The Department of Fisheries (DOF) in Yangon estimates a figure of six million ha of floodplains, which likely excludes river area and floodplain lakes. In costal area, so-called unused lands can be used for aquaculture. Shrimp culture ponds can develop in this area. In the year 2004-2005 shrimps ponds area was about 63 000 hectares in the coastal region. Plenty of verging lands and sea, brackish and fresh water are support to aqua cultures productions in country.
Traditional shrimp farms of about 10 000 acres (3 620 ha) have been in operation since 1978 along the banks of Naaf River in Rakhine State, bordering with Bangladesh. People in the northern Raphine States started with "trap and hold" farming practices in areas with large inter tidal zones with abundant shrimp juveniles. Such extensive shrimp farming practices, producing 100 kg shrimp/ha/year still dominate the shrimp culture sector, due to investment constraints, although intensive practices are gradually being adopted in some coastal areas. Research Team of Fisheries Corporation Ministry of Livestock Breeding & Fisheries was succeed P. monodon hatching in 1986-1987 in Myanmar, Systematic and intensive culture of Tiger prawn (P.monodon) started in Chaung tha, Ngwe Saung shrimp zone of Ayeyawady Division and Kyauk Tan and Zewbar zone of Yangon Division in 1988. The shrimp producers were produced successfully in these years with supporting of Department of Fisheries and Nation.
The shrimp farming are a in 2002 is estimated as 193 265 acres (over 70,000 ha) of which over 85 percent (around 60 000 ha) is under extensive culture techniques. An estimated 5 180 acres is under more intensive culture and another 22 768 acres under improved extensive (extensive plus). Under the government's shrimp culture expansion three-year plan from 2000-2002, traditional shrimp farms were being upgraded to improved extensive culture system. Penaeus monodon is the main species produced, but other species of wild shrimp are collected from extensive and traditional "trap and hold" ponds The Penaeus vannamei has been introduced to Ayeyarwaddy division shrimp farm in 2004 - 2005 on a trial basis and now Kyauktan Shrimp zone also cultured this species. Most of fresh water prawn and fish farmers were interested cultured in fresh water farms.
The largest area of shrimp farming is found in Rakhine State (155 533 acres), followed by Ayeyarwaddy (33 373 acres), Yangon (7 394 acres), with smaller areas in Bago, Kayin, Mon and Thanintharyi.
Aquaculture production (from DoF and Win Lat, 2003)
Shrimp hatcheries and shrimp seed supply
Shrimp seed for stocking of ponds come from the wild and from hatchery-reared post-larvae. Fry collection from the wild is particularly common in Rakhine State, where there are widespread "trap and hold" traditional farming systems relying on wild seed (stocked, or naturally entering ponds). There are probably several thousand people, including poor landless coastal people, who participate in catching of these wild shrimp fry. DOF has recently taken steps to ban collection of wild fry.
The second source of fry is hatchery-reared post-larvae (PLs), and
the number of hatcheries has been increasing since 1997. Currently,
there are around 31 shrimp (and prawn) hatcheries that have a capacity
to produce around 650 million PLs. However, DOF reports that in 2002
demand was not sufficient, and that the only around 300 million PLs were
produced. The demand from grow-out shrimp farming is also seasonal. DOF
estimate a total demand of 600 million PL/year. Some hatcheries produce
nauplii that are then transported elsewhere for nursing to post-larvae.Shrimp
price was decrease in 2004, Myanmar tiger prawn culture situations was
turns to fail. In the other hands Myanmar tried to substitute, white
shrimp in place of tiger prawn in 2004. Nowadays, white shrimp was
cultured in both marine and fresh water in the world. Myanmar has more
changes than others because of her plenty of verging land and fresh and
brackish water area.
Research Team of People’s Pearl and Fisheries Corporation Ministry of Livestock Breeding & Fisheries successfully hatched fresh water prawn (M.rosenbregii) since 1980 in Myanmar. The fresh water prawn culture was not developed in within 1980 – 1990 because of any supporting and interesting from the nation. In 1990, some farmers tested the Polly culture with fish and they found more benefit than fish culture, after that the giant fresh water prawn ( M. rosebergii) culture was developed in Myanmar. Now, Myanmar has 15 backyard fresh water prawn hatcheries in country and they can produce billions of fresh water prawn seeds. Most of the fresh water prawn farms in Yangon division and some were Bago and Ayeyawady Division. Myanmar fresh water prawn culture was nearly so-call organic culture. The shrimp farmers were culture low density in wide ponds (approximately they used 15 to 25 hectares ponds) and low feeding thus while prawn may grew depend on the natural foods. In this year 2011, fresh water seeds would be produced nearly 750millons and its shown Myanmar's fresh water prawn production will be nearly 0.9 million metric tons.